Salam, Hello, Hola………
Finally i have a medium to express whatever i think, whatever i want to share and whatever experience i’ve gain.
I would like to start with yesterday (6.3.2012). I was so happy when i received a call from my mom at 5.30pm…Alhamdullilah, her blood test showed a good sign. FYI, my mom is a stomach cancer patient, she had a total gastractomy 5 years ago….Alhmadullilah, she doesn’t have to go through chemo but she got to take B12 injection for the rest of her life. Do u know what did my mom lost that most of us still have? Below is some of the general knowledge to share:-
The enzymes that are secreted in the stomach are called gastric enzymes. The stomach plays a major role in digestion, both in a mechanical sense by mixing and crushing the food, and also in an enzymatic sense, by digesting it. The following are the enzymes produced by the stomach and their respective function:
- Pepsinogen is the main gastric enzyme. It is produced by the stomach cells called “chief cells” in its inactive form pepsinogen, which is a zymogen. Pepsinogen is then activated by the stomach acid into its active form, pepsin. Pepsin breaks down the protein in the food into smaller particles, such as peptide fragments and amino acids. Protein digestion, therefore, first starts in the stomach, unlike carbohydrate and lipids, which start their digestion in the mouth.
- Hydrochloric acid (HCl): This is in essence positively charged hydrogen atoms (H), or in lay-terms stomach acid, and is produced by the cells of the stomach called parietal cells. HCl mainly functions to denature the proteins ingested, to destroy any bacteria or virus that remains in the food, and also to activate pepsinogen into pepsin.
- Intrinsic factor (IF): Intrinsic factor is produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. Vitamin B12 (Vit. B12) is an important vitamin that requires assistance for absorption in terminal ileum. Initially in the saliva, haptocorrin secreted by salivary glands binds Vit. B, creating a Vit B12-Haptocorrin complex. The purpose of this complex is to protect Vitamin B12 from hydrochoric acid produced in the stomach. Once the stomach content exits the stomach into the duodenum, haptocorrin is cleaved with pancreatic enzymes, releasing the intact vitamin B12. Intrinsic factor (IF) produced by the parietal cells then binds Vitamin B12, creating a Vit. B12-IF complex. This complex is then absorbed at the terminal portion of the ileum.
- Mucin: The stomach has a priority to destroy the bacteria and viruses using its highly acidic environment but also has a duty to protect its own lining from its acid. The way that the stomach achieves this is by secreting mucin and bicarbonate via its mucous cells, and also by having a rapid cell turn-over.
- Gastrin: This is an important hormone produced by the “G cells” of the stomach. G cells produce gastrin in response to stomach stretching occurring after food enters it, and also after stomach exposure to protein. Gastrin is an endocrine hormone and therefore enters the bloodstream and eventually returns to the stomach where it stimulates parietal cells to produce hydrochloric acid (HCl) and Intrinsic factor (IF).
Of note is the division of function between the cells covering the stomach. There are four types of cells in the stomach:
- Parietal cells: Produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.
- Gastric chief cells: Produce pepsinogen. Chief cells are mainly found in the body of stomach, which is the middle or superior anatomic portion of the stomach.
- Goblet cells: Produce mucin and bicarbonate to create a “neutral zone” to protect the stomach lining from the acid or irritants in the stomach chyme.
- G cells: Produce the hormone gastrin in response to distention of the stomach mucosa or protein, and stimulate parietal cells production of their secretion. G cells are located in the antrum of the stomach, which is the most inferior region of the stomach.
Secretion by the previous cells is controlled by the enteric nervous system. Distention in the stomach or innervation by the vagus nerve (via the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system) activates the ENS, in turn leading to the release of acetylcholine. Once present, acetylcholine activates G cells and parietal cells.
So…from the info above, you know y my mom need B12=) Anyway, she complained to have a low back pain couple of weeks ago, and i was so worried and took her to do another blood test. She had a blood test end of last year and the result showed a slight increase of CEA cell (Carcinoembryonic antigen). That was what bothering me while waiting for her 2nd blood test…but Alhamdullilah, there’s no sign of secondary development and her CEA drop 1.0%. It was due to her poor absorbtion of Calcium and Iron. To help that she was on Homeopathy (to help her bones), Enetri (to help supply nutriens to body organs), Juice Plus (as a supplement) and the basic honey and goats milk=)